The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is defined as an estimate of the amount
of a particular chemical in food (food additive), as per body weight basis,
that can be ingested daily in the diet over a lifetime without appreciable
risk to health. The ADI is usually given as a range of 0-x milligrams per
kilogram of body weight per day.
Aromas are concentrated substances to give or enhance the flavour to a
food. The term aroma can also refer to specific products such as liquid
plant proteins, meat proteins, and herb extracts.
Acesulfame K, or acesulfame potassium, is a low-calorie sweetener approved
for use in the United States in 1988. It is an organic salt consisting of
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur and potassium atoms. It is 200
times sweeter than sucrose,
Additives (food additives)
Any natural or synthetic material, other than the basic raw ingredients,
used in the production of a food item to enhance the final product.
Amino acids function as the building blocks of proteins. Chemically, amino
acids are organic compounds containing an amino (NH1) group and a carboxyl
(COOH) group. They are classified as essential, nonessential and
conditionally essential. Essential amino acids include leucine, isoleucine,
valine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, threonine, lysine and
histidine. Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by the body and
include alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine,
glycine, proline and serine.
Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener used in a variety of foods and
beverages and as a tabletop sweetener. It is about 200 times sweeter than
sugar. Its basic components are aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one
milliliter (ml) of water at a standard initial temperature by one degree
Caffeine is a naturally-occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or
fruits of over 63 plant species The most commonly known sources of caffeine
are coffee and cocoa beans, cola nuts and tea leaves.
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen. They vary from simple sugars to very complex polymers. Plants
manufacture and store carbohydrates as their chief source of energy.
Emulsifiers are ingredients that keep two substances with opposing
properties mixed (for example water and oil).
Fats (Dietary Fats)
Fats are composed of the same three elements as carbohydrates -- carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen, but have relatively more carbon and hydrogen and less
oxygen, thus supplying a higher fuel value of nine calories per gram (versus
four calories per gram from carbohydrates and protein).Dietary fat is needed
to carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and to aid in their absorption
from the intestine.
Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. These
terms refer to the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms of
the fat molecule. Fats that contain a majority of saturated fatty acids are
solid at room temperature, those containing mostly unsaturated fatty acids
are usually liquid at room temperature and are called oils.
Dietary fiber generally refers to parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts
and legumes that can't be digested by humans. Meats and dairy products do
not contain fiber. There are two basic types of fiber - insoluble and
soluble. Soluble fiber can be found in cereals, oatmeal, beans and other
foods. Insoluble fiber can be found in cauliflower, cabbage and other
vegetables and fruits.
5 A Day
Refers to the dietary recommendation to consume five servings of fruits and
vegetables every day. The tagline, 5 A Day, became a promotional message in
campaigns to increase fruits and vegetable consumption.